Emergency Communications

In the event of an environmental emergency/disaster or serious civil unrest activity, cell phones, telephone land lines and even satellite communications may not be available. What are your options to summon help or stay in touch? What are your options if you do not want to attract attention but need to communicate within your own group?

It is recommended that each vehicle and Go-Bag has at least one functional Portable 2-Way Radio and AM/FM/Weather Band Radio (either wind-up or with functional batteries).

Protecting Electronics:
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) could render radios (and other electrical equipment) useless. Storing radio(s), batteries and other electronics in a metal container (Faraday Cage) may prevent EMP damage. Note that the electronics must not be in direct contact with the container's metal interior.

AM/FM/Weather Band Radio:
Staying in touch with the outside world can be accomplished with this simple tool. Staying informed of events and weather conditions helps with planning and can boost morale. Actually communicating with others will require one or more of the following tools or skills.

Air vs Infrastructure:
In a serious environmental or civil unrest event, the communications infrastructure (telephone cables, satellites, or cell towers) may be down or congested. It is more likely to summon help or stay in contact with family, friends or authorities with any type of Portable 2-Way Radio that uses air waves and not the communications infrastructure.

Expired Cell Phone:
Even expired cell phones may be able call 911. Just keep them charged.

Internet & Mobile Hotspot:
Recently I cut my cable internet in favor of a larger data plan on my smart phone for the flexibility of having internet access at my remote cabin or permanent home. I found myself spending less time at the cabin (than I liked) and getting a bit anxious when I couldn't access the internet. This was, actually, a re-visit for me. I had previously tried this when data plans were not as robust and the amount of available data was very small compared to today's offerings. Understand that the phone and Provider's Data Plan must have the Hotspot capability. Inquire of the provider before taking the plunge. There are some other things I have learned about this arrangement that I will try to share here:
Many ask why I just don't keep my home internet and the increased data plan. As one who continues to pursue a "conserver lifestyle", it just goes against the grain and you just have to be in my shoes to understand. The "P4T Minimalist Living page" may help explain.
Resources:
How to Turn Your Phone Into a Wi-Fi Hotspot

Satellite Telephone:
A satellite telephone, or satphone, is a type of mobile phone that connects to other phones or the telephone network by radio through orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites, as cellphones do.

Portable 2-Way Radio:
Having a set, or several sets, of portable 2-way radios may be the only way to contact emergency services (police, fire, ambulance) or stay in touch with family and friends.

CB (Citizen Band) Radio:
Police and Fire Departments frequently monitor the local CB Radio Emergency channel (9). Channel 9 was issued by the FCC for emergency communication and is still scanned by US agencies, such as police, rescue for medical emergencies, accidents, vehicle breakdowns, and lost motorists. Channel 19 is the unofficial trucker information channel. Beyond entertainment purposes (for which many are well acquainted) trucker chatter can be lifesaving. These CB-type Portable 2-Way Radio can be as simple as a small walkie-talkie (found in your local department store) or a more complex vehicle or home console.

To stay in touch with family and friends, do not use channels 9 or 19 but a pre-designated channel/frequency known only to your personal contacts. Because CB radio channels can be used by anyone with a CB radio, you will need to distinguish your contacts from other radio frequency users. Pre-designated radio names (handles or call signs) should be assigned to each of your contacts and all of you should know the radio names of all other parties in your group.

HAM Radio:
Generally, CB radios are good for only a few miles (at the most) depending on your equipment, batteries and geographical terrain. For long-distance and long term communications, Amateur radios (also called ham radios) are the option. Setup properly, Ham Radios can be used to communicate around the world using repeaters that are setup by multiple Ham radio operators. FCC licensing is required but can be easily acquired.

Text, Email and Social Media:
Don't reject the possibility that these options may still function as they, usually, operate differently than telephone and cell phone systems. Instead of a phone call, use text or email. Instead of your data plan, find a WiFi access point. Instead of a cell phone, try to locate a computer.

eMmail:
One of the simplest alternative methods of communication could be email. Even if phone lines are jammed (busy signal), cable, fiber, T1 or satellite systems may still be able to transmit a simple/basic email message to loved ones in an emergency.

War Driving:
Wardriving refers to the act of locating open Wi-Fi hot spots while driving in a car. The goal of wardriving is to document and map hotspots, and generally involves software specifically designed for wardriving. Wardriving is also known as access point mapping.

Graffiti / Hobo Chalk Talk:
The Hobo Hieroglyphs: Their Secret Symbols, Explained
Hobo Slang

Whistle:
Don't forget the lowly whistle. Everyone should always carry one. For close-quarter communications, whistles are better than yelling. The sound of a whistle carries better through the air, for greater distances, and uses less physical energy. Yelling can injure the throat and uses much more physical energy. Within a group, develop unique whistle signals to communicate for different activities or alerts.

Mirror:
A mirror is a simple, effective means of communication and signaling for help. Anything that can reflect light has the potential of getting attention when properly used, even the broken headlight of a vehicle. Before it is necessary to use, practice to determine the best reflective capability and position.

Drumming:
Developed and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long-distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. The simple banging together of sticks can be used as a method of communication or signaling for help.

Smoke/Fire:
In most cases, smoke or fire will draw attention to an emergency situation, especially to emergency response aircraft, watercraft and land search personnel. Smoke usually works best during the day while fire is better to use at night.

Go Fly a Kite or Balloon:
Getting a kite or [hot air] balloon into the air will attract attention.

Flares and Light Sticks:
Most watercraft, aircraft and sporting goods stores carry these to signal for help.

Landscape Signals:
Use sand or tree branches to form gigantic "SOS" or "HELP" letters on the ground.

Flag Semaphore:
Semaphores were adopted and widely used (with hand-held flags) in the maritime world in the 19th century. It is still used at sea and is acceptable for emergency communication in daylight or using lighted wands instead of flags, at night.

Rule of 3:
"Three-In-A-Row" is the universal sign of distress (needing help). Three shots, three flags, three "Xs". Anything of three that is distinct (out of place) from normal surroundings will draw attention.

Encryption / Code:
By definition, encryption is the process of converting information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access. It can be incorporated in any type of communication to mask the true meaning and can be as simple as converting letters to numbers (A=1, Z=26, etc.) or as complex as a computer generated security algorithm. Graffiti / Hobo Chalk Talk might be considered a form of encryption or "coded language". In my younger days, my parents would use "pig latin" to talk to one another about stuff they didn't want us kids to know what they were saying. Eventually, we picked it up. Sometimes just learning and using another language can mask a conversation around those who don't know the language. During World War 2, Navajo indians were used by the US military to transmit information using their native language so the Japanese could not understand. A very fine movie (WindTalkers) was made about them, staring Nicolas Cage. For practical purposes, any "code" used should be clearly understandable to all those who want to "secretly" communicate.

Sign Language:
This is, mostly, used for the deaf but can be used to communicate covertly when internal communication is preferred over alerting someone outside a group or signaling for help.

Morse Code:
This international method of communication is still in use today used with audible or visual devices.

Shorthand: We don't see this around much anymore, but that is precisely why you should learn it! For many, many years, "taking shorthand" was commonplace in offices where one person would dictate a memo, note, or some other document while another person jotted it down, word for word, in shorthand.
Beginner's Handbook to Learn Shorthand

Family Language: Create some sort of secret language for your own family or group, preferably more than one. Work towards having coded messages that can be communicated visually, verbally, or audibly.

It is well known that the National Security Agency (NSA), headquartered at Fort Meade, Maryland, monitors ALL electronic communications (phones, email, texts, internet activity, airwaves and more) in the U.S. and all around the world, private and public. All of YOUR communications are monitored and stored. All of this data is saved for follow-up research if needed. We can't fathom how much computer data storage this must consume. Additionally, their search decryption algorithms include tons of things we wouldn't even imagine like, Klingon (Star Trek) speech, words spelled backward, frequently repeating words or phrases in or out of context. While there were attempts to stop NSA from spying on U.S. citizens, the fact is that it has continued to increase it activities and capabilities. So, when you are trying to communicate "privately", you may want to keep this in mind with the understanding that the NSA has, most likely, already designed their software to interpret your code. So, the best you may be able to do is keep Joe Citizen from understanding. But anything you need to keep REALLY secret is best kept in quiet, face-to-face personal conversations in the middle of nowhere and, even then, keep an eye out for drones.
Ciphers and Codes for Kids to Communicate Secretly

Related Information/Links:
4 Secret Languages That Will Allow You to Communicate Anywhere
CHATTING IN SECRET WHILE WE'RE ALL BEING WATCHED
Communicate Covertly and Hide Secret Messages in Plain Sight with Steganography
Ham Radio Training (register)
Ham Radio Exam Preparation (sample tests)
Staying in Contact When SHTF
What Will Happen When the Phone Lines Go Down?
Emergency Communications 101
SHTF Communication Methods to Save Your Life
Battery-Less Devices